Tag Archives: durkheim

The new and old faces of Noah: what do they mean, and which is your favorite?

Darren Aronofsky’s new movie Noah is one of the biggest movies of this year so far, and is the latest in the line of films about the Old Testament hero. Each incarnation of the story has its own feel and personality, and puts forth the narrative through a unique social lens.

For instance, Reverend Otis Moss III’s article entitled “A Biblical Review of Noah”, Moss states that Aronofosky’s Noah is “daring, powerful, and imaginative”, but also that it “expands the story” of the Bible. (Moss) Noah is more real than biblical, and the story of the Great Flood is a much more human.

“The filmmaker weaves a story more in line with St. Augustine’s struggle and Elie Wiesel’s crisis of faith. Noah demands the audience to think and feel. We are forced to look at the film with head and heart.” (Moss)


Our class has spent the last few weeks reading Edward Blum and Paul Harvey’s book The Color of Christ, which describes and evaluates different depictions of Jesus throughout American history, especially in terms of race. We also spent time looking at different representations of Jesus throughout the history of film. We watched bits and pieces of movies like “Passion of the Christ”, “Son of God”, “Godspell”, and “The Last Temptation of Christ”, and evaluated the meaning(s) behind their depictions of Christ. Dr. Altman then asked us a thought-provoking question: which Jesus was our favorite? As far as Noah is concerned, I would like to use a similar thought process to examine a character who has been re-invented through film almost as many times as Jesus.

Here are a few cinematic representations of Noah.


Noah’s Ark (1928 – Michael Curtiz) http://youtu.be/8Mjtr6V5hCE

This is the “Wizard of Oz” meets “All Quiet on the Western Front” version of Noah. The film begins with the story of World War I, and the characters in the story are developed in the narrative of the days leading up to and during the war. When a comparison is made between the “flood” of blood in World War one and Noah, the frame of the film shifts, and the characters take on different identities (see Wizard of Oz reference) in the time of the Great Flood. I think that the anachronistic use of the biblical story is similarly used in Upton Sinclair’s They Call me Carpenter: A Tale of the Second Coming, which Blum cites in The Color of Christ. Sinclair’s “Carpenter” combines the story and ideology of Jesus with the racial tension of 1920’s Los Angeles. Similarly, “Noah’s Ark” synthesizes the violence and terror of World War I with the wrath of God in the story of Noah. George O’Brien’s more serious, stoic (and uncomfortably romantic) Noah embodies the drama of the silent movie era, and portrays the helplessness of both a soldier and a sheperd of the Great Flood.

George O'brien's scantily dressed and stressed out Noah.

George O’brien’s scantily dressed and stressed out Noah.


Noah’s Ark (1999 TV Miniseries – John Irvin) http://youtu.be/xD6B8aPTS68

This is the first instance I could find where “bearded Noah” shows up. This TV miniseries on NBC was very highly rated (the second of the three parts set a one-night ratings record that wasn’t reached again until 2004) but was shamed critically, and is banned in Malaysia. Jon Voight’s down-home Noah was blended into the Genesis story of Sodom and Gomorrah by the creative team, and the movie’s creative expansion of the story embodies what Blum refers to as the “deity in the digital age”. In this chapter, Blum describes the debate over Jesus’s race in the Campus Crusade film Jesus (1979). Blum makes the point that at in terms of the white, American-accented Jesus Campus Crusade chose to use, “Biblical or geographical accuracy, it appeared, was less vital than familiarity.” (Blum 257) The 1999 Noah movie continued the “white noah” narrative, which is maybe even more confusing (and, some would say, arbitrary) than that of  the coloration of Jesus. Why is Noah always white? Who made the casting decision to put the Midnight Cowboy into the Old Testament


Jon Voight’s extremely loyal and frequently confused Noah. Complete with Macaw.


Evan Almighty (2007 – Tom Shadyac) http://youtu.be/PnUvSn9pVaA

Two things: I know that his name in the movie isn’t Noah, and the movie itself was awful. However, this modern depiction of the Noah story, regardless of how ridiculous it was, Steve Carell builds an ark, and his commitment to God demonstrates a choice between the sacred and the profane. Similar to the Tony Danza Noah, (which regrettably isn’t featured and regrettably is also terrible)  Steve Carell’s Evan Baxter/Noah is a man called out of his suburban life by God to build an ark for an impending flood. Here is a situation where the protagonists are called to abandon their earthly lives to protect their people from an impending disaster. These stories provide a modern setting for Noah and the perceived distinction between the Durkheimian profane (earthly lives, success) with the sacred (misssion from God, earth-swallowing flood). Also, the director’s name sounds like it came out of the book of Judges.

Bearded Steve Carell as Congressman Evan Baxter. Having a beard makes you Noah, right?

Steve Carell as Congressman Evan Baxter. Having a beard makes you Noah, right?


The Bible (2013 – History Channel) http://youtu.be/ol8LDTR2yPs

I only included this Noah because he sounds like he belongs in  How to Train your Dragon. William Wallace Noah isn’t on the screen for very long, but he does tell the entire story of Genesis in about three minutes. That seems like a good way to start a show about the Bible. He is white and has a beard, though. I still can’t figure that out.

Scottish Noah has a beard too, and he really enjoys eating haggis.

Scottish Noah has a beard too. And he really enjoys eating haggis. And playing the bagpipes.


Noah (2014 – Darren Aronofsky) http://youtu.be/e0qrtdPejxg

Russell Crowe Noah is exactly what one might expect Russell Crowe Noah to be. Gladiator Noah. He is virile, powerful, and burdened by the power of his task. However, in a modern, politically correct twist, Noah does not hear the voice of God explicitly. The audience instead sees the “nudge of God on Noah’s spirit.”  (Moss)  I think that this modern, less divine version of the story is what its current audience wants to see. I think that this manly Noah, who is constrained by the limits of humanity as the rest of us,  relates directly to how Blum described the making of Mel Gibson’s The Passion of the Christ. In The Passion,  Jesus was “buff and bright”(Blum 261), and seemed to “symbolize America.”

 “Instead of the Sunday school tale of the ark and animals, we are given a grownup story of a family struggling to be faithful, obedient, loving, and compassionate, in the face of widespread intolerable evil. The story of Noah has inspired and provoked our consciousness for thousands of years, and a modern artist, Darren Aronofsky, has been possessed by the story once again.” (Moss)

I think this Noah is the way that America would like to see themselves in that situation. Noah is driven by his devotion to his family, and his devotion in building the ark is a reflection of his paternal instinct. He builds an ark, and he looks like an ark-builder. He is human, and he is shown in the movie as being exactly that.

Russell Crowe's Noah. A burly, bulky, ark-building, bearded badass. He's the team captain.

Russell Crowe’s Noah. A burly, bulky, ark-building, bearded badass. He’s the team captain.


Even if you didn’t want to, you now have an in-depth knowledge of cinematic Noahs and what they represent. I’ll ask the same question that was asked to us: which Noah is your favorite, and why? Which one is the most accurate, and which one speaks to you?


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Baptists, Buddhists, and…Bronies?: The Cult Following that Wavers between Fandom and Religion


Growing up in a household of girls, I have played with my fair share of Bratz dolls, Polly Pockets, and, of course, My Little Ponies. However, it wasn’t until this past year that My Little Pony became more to me than an entertainment franchise. After viewing the 2013 documentaryBronies: The Extremely Unexpected Adult Fans of My Little Pony, I am beginning to consider My Little Pony and its fandom as an emerging religion.

For those unfamiliar with this phenomenon, the term “brony” refers to a typically adult, usually male fan of television series My Little Pony: Friendship is Magic. Though the show’s intended audience is adolescent girls, featuring stereotypically “girly” images (read: rainbow horses with “cutie marks” on their rumps), the universal themes attract all genders and generations. Because the show is intended for little girls, Bronies are frequently assumed to be pedophilic, homosexual, or just plain weird. However, Bronies: The Extremely Unexpected Adult Fans of My Little Pony confronts and dismisses these stereotypes while revealing a surprisingly religious undertone of the fandom.

The documentary, now on Netflix, follows several bronies as they travel to BronyCon, a gathering hosted in New York City to celebrate all things My Little Pony. Though the bronies interviewed in the film are nationally diverse, hailing from the United States, Turkey, Germany, and England, they tend to emphasize similar themes. For these men (and a few women), the attractiveness of My Little Pony: Friendship is Magic fandom, lies in two main qualities: kindness and acceptance.

Because the My Little Pony franchise targets adolescents, Friendship is Magic episodes tend to revolve around positive moral themes like sharing, faith, overcoming differences, embracing individual talents, bravery, and the list goes on. Many bronies featured in the documentary cite these adorable-ized fables as a major reason for watching the show. The importance of accepting one another is a particularly present theme throughout the entire series as well as in the brony fandom. Many of the stories shared in Bronies come from former loners and outcasts who found solace within the brony community. As voice actor Kira Buckland said, “It doesn’t matter who you are, you can find a place in this fandom and you can be accepted”. The kindness and unconditional support for one another is exemplified by the charitable deeds of the community. Bronies includes a segment about Michelle Arroyo and her 12 year old son, Grayson, who has been diagnosed with terminal brain cancer. Together, bronies raised over 6,500 dollars for his treatment and send him letters daily.

So, bronies have a moral code, practice universal acceptance, and emphasize charity. Already the parallels between the My Little Pony fandom and organized religions are apparent. However, in order to fully understand their position between fandom and religion, Emile Durkheim must be brought into the equation. Durkheim, a French sociologist and philosopher, characterized religion in social terms. He believed that religions have totems, or things representative of the group around which the group rallies. Religions also produce heightened emotions in group settings, which he called a “collective effervescence”. The totem(s) for bronies are clear enough; nearly every aspect of Friendship is Magic is a point around which the fandom rallies. They produce their own forms of hymns and icons which celebrate My Little Pony and, in a bigger way, celebrate the community that surrounds show. The social dynamic of bronies is key to their role as a religion. The collective effervescence that Durkheim describes is apparent in all the footage of BronyCon in the documentary. Groups of people who were strangers only minutes before are seen singing together, dancing together, and bumping fists (or hooves). Several bronies who pause to speak with the camera describe their exhilaration and the overwhelming sense of unity at the convention. The assembly is sacred to these people, and even when they are not congregated, the knowledge that they are members of a group is of comfort. As Cathy Weseluck says, My Little Pony “is a show that has actually created a community. I think it’s a visceral thing that’s happening here. I think it’s connected to the heart”. The phenomenon, despite the misplaced stereotypes which surround it, seems heartfelt indeed when given a closer examination. Despite the social persecution bronies experience on a daily basis, their fandom is rapidly expanding due to passionate proselytizing, and, perhaps, the allure of rainbow horses singing songs about friendship.

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